A material is used or reused if it is used as an ingredient in an industrial process to generate a product (e.g., distillation bottoms from one process used as feedstock in another process) or if it is used as a viable alternative to a commercial product (e.g., spent pickle liquor used as a sludge conditioner in wastewater treatment).

Recycling that entails the direct placement of wastes or products containing wastes (e.g., asphalt including petroleum-refining wastes as a component) on the soil is known as "use constituting disposal." "Burning for energy recovery" is a type of recycling in which a hazardous waste is burned for its fuel value (either directly or when it is used to produce a fuel).

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